Punishments in Traditional China

The following images are from the New York Public Library Digital Gallery. Some are engravings and some are photographs. Most and perhaps all are from the 19th century.

Here are some more images from 19th-century China that I've found elsewhere.

And here is an excellent web site (in French and English) analyzing punishment in traditional China and its image in Western countries. The site description reads in part as follows:

Throughout history, few cultures have been as strongly vilified for alleged cruelty, as China by the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries West. How much of what was reported is true, how much is baseless fantasy, how much is a distortion of real facts? How and why was punishment applied in late imperial China? Surprisingly, the very question of how and why the image of the supplice chinois was so rapidly born and later allowed to thrive, is as yet almost entirely unexplored by research. Likewise for the actual workings of punishments, be it the harshest modes of execution, or the milder punishing practices and judicial tortures. Both topics are linked: how can the value of a myth be appreciated without taking into account what it is feeding from?

Second, the site is a scholarly instrument, meant to assist research at various ways. The purpose is to gather in one single space, documents scattered all over the world in many different repositories, as well as to provide new research on the subject. The site will be a comprehensive source of information, not only on judiciary and punishment in China, but also how facts were interpreted/built on in the West.